Each time I teach my Security class, I give a month-long lab to crack as many passwords as possible. For this spring’s contest (opened on February 15, 2022), I used two different hash types: MD5 and SHA-512. The contest closed on March 15th at 11:59 PM PDT. The password hashes (16 total):
jackbear:$1$hywhATWG$MWDc414DyeSnztehEmi221:1001:1001:,,,:/home/jackbear:/bin/bash brotherbear:$1$8bzZwROt$XUPwfIRdb07qXLLnCQw7B0:1002:1002:,,,:/home/brotherbear:/bin/bash fancybear:$1$Nbe6ers2$ZW5VbAfMM9xBuLZSI61Ov0:1003:1003:,,,:/home/fancybear:/bin/bash barneybear:$1$fZO404Ln$heJgdKHfFni.xzV8F1gUP.:1004:1004:,,,:/home/barneybear:/bin/bash pandabear:$1$tYcIKTob$uoA4p/8OrzXsg.k/6w8370:1005:1005:,,,:/home/pandabear:/bin/bash yogibear:$1$7fb/NYLR$ylwPOpUaS2q1NcHvBAt4K.:1006:1006:,,,:/home/yogibear:/bin/bash papabear:$1$xwiEhbtM$miQ3uKUmHsgAvYgyluDDA/:1007:1007:,,,:/home/papabear:/bin/bash grizzlybear:$1$pq9yY0tQ$GLQZa8gpG1Luf4iCOnBEK.:1008:1008:,,,:/home/grizzlybear:/bin/bash sisterbear:$6$Wfq2HoGzG822Sqt0$jYC1RIk00A09pQRsVm0GveEaUJFjK4oOuJU9B2t1iJhH.LzsfKaE2z9QuRlEFmdM9ZUq8UtQAgolm1SNqvd6V/:1001:1003:,,,:/home/sisterbear:/bin/bash teddybear:$6$t5ykTUMlMtbBg4TK$vdZl5z2CI7hoe/F0meeSpgdDUpw.gcenQ0MxF6QdbM73SvlocOO0UVcbKXjJQKZGscSFDd2wWZUfbW6ag8qaE/:1002:1004:,,,:/home/teddybear:/bin/bash polarbear:$6$K21s24VHlHLEFSE1$cLHyDaRX6enEN6Wo/w8knfgnEXG1y6Jm5vw9EUWupy.8kPMIiDxsny2ew50.mcfc/RfGd6cqamvx0M1fI1tCt.:1003:1005:,,,:/home/polarbear:/bin/bash bluebear:$6$b3OKo5na5waXTgwo$6Wx57nOL1r8Gfs74hq5qN0Pmmd97Dbu7yytCZH7OiPbisEtSsZHRsJttllAweN3NYeXYnhoTJgPcVxMsw67nN1:1004:1006:,,,:/home/bluebear:/bin/bash blackbear:$6$AIniJcbZ39IT6/1L$4FeR9YbBkMVXa2tzxbZ3HR8JxhUhS.tKkOdE6XtV9I/5VLo07bzrw1T1rYQqhQMLLM8XpUpJGF1yTOPOCitKC0:1005:1007:,,,:/home/blackbear:/bin/bash mamabear:$6$TpNBOtjR0Bhvh7bf$UK9SQLqhpq7fY2v7YgxFvqDFUHP8ttdqag0KoZ74BQAq.PqHBK8BjZ3WE/glc.ZpdZgepgPMpDWh6izXU6vsx.:1006:1008:,,,:/home/mamabear:/bin/bash carebear:$6$/0nHqx8c8TYhzftJ$aEPcb/3AwDZvBsb3BPAql6c/HOzF86O73OB3oPnKJAKCvxBE0ic2cjSHW5xEr81qS70MtnZWxOVMIn7qsu2eK/:1007:1009:,,,:/home/carebear:/bin/bash cozybear:$6$cyTr8Zjte//XOEEM$DgLhyB/WS0yZcEk4I8w//J.FVwxNKtLTn8F6QYw7R/ywhCpBb/0xiZ9g/u09ui.KADuhBbAerbk/uMCmXpqey/:1008:1010:,,,:/home/cozybear:/bin/bash
114 submissions across two classes. The answers:
- (MD5) jackbear:20100728 => 90 students cracked this
- (MD5) brotherbear:L!verpool => 39 students cracked this
- (MD5) fancybear:54ck3n => 108 students cracked this
- (MD5) barneybear:gofast => 113 students cracked this
- (MD5) pandabear:IDLER => 103 students cracked this
- (MD5) yogibear:Wh@t3ver! => 12 students cracked this
- (MD5) papabear:1632TEAR => 107 students cracked this
- (MD5) grizzlybear:069rG2 => 4 students cracked this
- (SHA-512) sisterbear:774415 => 43 students cracked this
- (SHA-512) teddybear:csh1sA => 0 students cracked this
- (SHA-512) polarbear:220493 => 104 students cracked this
- (SHA-512) bluebear:ukflbjkec => 88 students cracked this
- (SHA-512) blackbear:4utumn1# => 28 students cracked this
- (SHA-512) mamabear:Concurrent => 60 students cracked this
- (SHA-512) carebear:C@gx”9ZY)V => 0 student cracked this
- (SHA-512) cozybear:#BHRN(@xKoa/ => 0 student cracked this
To earn all 10 / 10 points for the lab, students had to crack 6 or more passwords. The final distribution:
13 (x2) 12 (x2) 11 (x13) 10 (x11) 9 (x11) 8 (x16) 7 (x23) 6 (x29) 5 (x6) 4
The co-winner’s methodology and haul:
For this lab, I employed several cracking strategies. First, I used cat and file redirection to combine all of the SecLists repository into one massive file, which I ran through John the Ripper for all the hashes. I also downloaded several other wordlists, including a list by berzerk0 on GitHub of 109 million "most probable" passwords, a wordlist called Kaonashi, and CrackStation's human based wordlist, combining them into one list called BCK_full.txt, which was also run through John the Ripper. Some other wordlists I experimented with was one I wrote code to generate which created all possible digit-only strings up to a certain length, the full CrackStation wordlist, the full Kaonashi wordlist, OpenWall's entire wordlist, and a wordlist taken by combining several wordlists created by someone from Oxford University. I ran a vast majority of my cracking attempts using the Tufts HPC, which proved even more effective when I eventually switched to using Hashcat, which could utilize multiple GPUs in parallel. I typically used NVIDIA A100 or NVIDIA Tesla 4 GPUs, up to at least 16 at a time running several cracking instances. I also utilized OnlineHashCrack.com, which ran some cloud password cracking on its own hidden wordlists and rules on the hashes I gave it, and it was able to crack one password, which I paid 15$ to reveal (since it was over 8 characters in length). I also ran some pure brute force on Hashcat, including generating all possible strings for some small lengths, and also trying this on larger length strings by restricting the characters that could be used in the passwords. Finally, I also utilized some rules as a way of "mangling" wordlists; the rules I mainly used was the best64 rule and the InsidePro-PasswordsPro rule. yogibear:Wh@t3ver! barneybear:gofast jackbear:20100728 papabear:1632TEAR pandabear:IDLER brotherbear:L!verpool fancybear:54ck3n grizzlybear:069rG2 polarbear:220493 bluebear:ukflbjkec mamabear:Concurrent sisterbear:774415 blackbear:4utumn1#
MD5 jackbear:20100728 (From 2020-200_most_used_passwords.txt) barneybear:gofast (From Most-Popular-Letter-Passes.txt) fancybear:54ck3n (From bt4-password.txt) pandabear:IDLER (From darkc0de.txt) papabear:1632TEAR (From xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000.txt) brotherbear:L!verpool (From crack station wordlist ) yogibear:Wh@t3ver! (From weakpass_3 from weakpass.com) grizzlybear:069rG2 ( Hashcat Brute force with A100 GPUs in GCP) SHA512 (From hashesorg2019) polarbear:220493 sisterbear:774415 mamabear:Concurrent bluebear:ukflbjkec blackbear:4utumn1# (from seclists) The first 7 password ran from M1 chip. switch to GPU later for optimal performance. Wordlists from SecLists Git Repo, Crack Station, and weakpass.com. Had to brute force on GCP A100 GPU for grizzlybear. Commands: ls ~/wl/*.txt | xargs -t -I% john --session=attack1 --wordlist=% -fork=8 hash1.txt john --format=md5crypt-opencl --wordlist=weakpass_3 --devices=gpu crack1.txt SHA512. All jobs done in GCP A100 GPU instances with hashcat. John had some problems in opencl driver with the instances. Command: hashcat -O -m 1800 -o result.txt -a 0 -w 3 hash.txt wordlist
Used john the ripper, ran simple "john file.txt" for 3.5 days and found 3 passwords so far that way. Also ran john with password lists from danielmeissler using --format== sha512crypt to get fancy bear, and --format== HMAC-SHA256 for cozy bear. carebear: panthers bluebear: Leto polarbear: 931592 fancybear: letmein123 cozybear: jacket025 pandabear: 41255066
The runners-up methodology and haul:
barneybear:gofast fancybear:54ck3n pandabear:IDLER jackbear:20100728 mamabear:Concurrent blackbear:4utumn1# bluebear:ukflbjkec polarbear:220493 papabear:1632TEAR sisterbear:774415 yogibear:Wh@t3ver! brotherbear:L!verpool John the ripper using: all wordlists from SecLists, rockyou.txt, and cyclone.hashesorg.hashkiller.combined.txt.
barneybear:gofast papabear:1632TEAR jackbear:20100728 brotherbear:L!verpool fancybear:54ck3n pandabear:IDLER yogibear:Wh@t3ver! sisterbear:774415 polarbear:220493 bluebear:ukflbjkec mamabear:Concurrent blackbear:4utumn1# Passwords cracked: 12 (7 MD5 + 5 SHA512) My process: 1. Used one of the largest list from the SecLists repository, containing a million of the most common passwords. Ran this wordlist with john and cracked 1 or 2 of the MD5 hashes in under 5 minutes. 2. Used a list of 1.4 billion passwords found online mentioned in seclists somewhere. This wordlist is ~10 GB. Using this list, john ran for 20 minutes and found 2 or 3 more MD5 hashes, so I had 4 cracked MD5 hashes total. 3. Battled to get john or hashcat cracking SHA512 hashes on my M1 Mac, but had no luck. 4. Switched to my PC for cracking SHA512 hashes. Downloaded the rockyou dataset (~140 MB) and used it on the SHA512 hashes with hashcat, which cracked two of them in under 10 mins. 5. Downloaded CrackStation.net’s entire dictionary (~15 GB) and used it to try to crack the remaining MD5 hashes with hashcat. Got two more of the MD5 hashes with this method in about 40 minutes. 6. Found some of the most effective rules for hashcat. Many of them took too long to run, so I found a simpler rule file called cyclone_250 containing the 250 top rules for cracking hashes. Running this file with the rockyou dataset on the MD5, I found another one of the MD5 hashes in just under an hour. I tried a bunch of other rules with some of the smaller datasets, but had no luck. 7. Ran the 1.4 billion password wordlist on the SHA512 hashes overnight, which cracked another two of them. 8. Merged all the other password files from the SecLists repository together, then used that combined wordlist to crack another SHA512 hash.
Methodologies used by students:
I used hashcat with all the small wordlists (< 1mb) and some big wordlists (darkc0de.txt, bt4-password.txt, SCRABBLE-large.txt, SCRABBLE-munged-large.txt, xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000.txt) to crack the passwords. The first five are from MD5, last four are from SHA512.
- I started with just having john the ripper use the automatic wordlist on the first three hashes in my file "crackme.txt" but it didn't crack any passwords that way, and it has been running using the brute force method and still hasn't cracked any passwords that way. Then, I had two terminal windows running: "crackme2.txt" with the first 8 hashes and "crackme3.txt" with the last 8. I used the wordlist with 10,000,000 passwords and have been having much more success with that. - I got pandabear after 12 hours of running john the ripper using a wordlist by crackstation called "humanwordlist" - I got sisterbear after about a day of running john the ripper using "humanwordlist" by crackstation. - I got jackbear in less than 1 second by running john the ripper using "2020-200_most_used_passwords.txt" by danielmiessler - I got fancybear in about 2 minutes running john and using wordlist “darkc0de.txt"I got mamabear in about 1 hour running john and using “darkc0de.txt” - I got mamabear in about 1 hour running “darkc0de.txt”
Methodology: I set up an Ubuntu instance on Google Cloud to run John the Ripper using as much of the CPU as possible with --fork. I found the first three passwords with the rockme.txt wordlist, then ran JtR incremental mode for about a week and got the next two. Once I hadn't gotten any for a few days, I switched tactics and ran all of the wordlists from SecLists using a bash script that iterated through them and got the next five (lesson learned: run all the lists, not just the biggest one).
I used wordlists to crack these passwords. I used SecLists as my wordlist. For fancybear and pandabear, I used darkc0de.txt For jackbear, I used 2020-200_most_used_passwords.txt For barneybear, papabear, bluebear and polarbear, I used xato-net-10-million-passwords.txt I first saved the first 8 passwords in a file and ran john on that file with the wordlist files, and then did the same for the last 8 passwords
Overall: 7 passwords were cracked. First Submission: Cracking methodology was running the word list SecLists on a crackme.txt file I created and put both of those in my Desktop folder called "lab5." I ran the command: john --wordlist="SecLists/Passwords/darkc0de.txt" crackme.txt, which was a file which had all the hashes we could run on john the ripper through the mac terminal. Password Username IDLER (pandabear) 54ck3n (fancybear) Second Submission: This was run on john --wordlist="SecLists/Passwords/xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000.txt" crackme.txt I also had put the format into format=md5crypt-long to find two more passwords. Password Username gofast (barneybear) 1632TEAR (papabear) Third Submission: This was run on john --wordlist="SecLists/Passwords/darkc0de.txt" password.txt I took out the format=md5crypt-long to find another password and simply ran the last 8 as these are not md5. Password Username Concurrent Fourth Submission: This was ran on john --wordlist="SecLists/Passwords/xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000.txt" password.txt I took out the format=md5crypt-long to find another password and simply ran the last 8 to find these two, as the last 8 are not md5. Password Username ukflbjkec (bluebear) 220493 (polarbear)
For these passwords, I split the MD5 into two sets of four (because it seemed as though there were different MD5 variants) and ran them on a combined wordlist I made. The way I created the wordlist was by concatenating all the files in the SecLists wordlist directory with a simple script. I also used the rockyou wordlist and am in the process of using the crackstation wordlist. I got the first SHA password via brute force.
I've been using John the Ripper. I took the original file of password hashes and separated it into 2 files with the 2 differrent types of hashes. I first ran JtR on the default wordlist. Then I then downloaded all the password lists from Daniel Miessler's github. I combined all the lists into 1 big txt file and used that on each of the hash files. Then I googled around and found a couple more very large word lists that i downloaded (~2 GB) and ran each word list through those. I cn currently still running each hash list on a new wordlist but this is what i have so far.
basic john md5 on wsl barneybear:gofast fancybear:54ck3n jackbear:20100728 hashcat w/ darkc0de password list pandabear: IDLER mamabear: Concurrent hashcat w/ xato-net-10-million-passwords-1000000 papabear: 1632TEAR polarbear: 220493 bluebear: ukflbjkec